Gossypium is the cotton genus. It belongs to the tribe Gossypieae, in the mallow family, Malvaceae, native to the tropical and subtropical regions. The genus Gossypium comprises around 50 annual, biennial and perennials species, making it the largest in species number in the tribe Gossypieae. Cotton is the primary natural fiber used. Cultivated cotton is also a major oilseed crop, as well as a main protein source for animal feed. From the point of view of its cultivation for fiber, there are three types of cotton: long fiber (Gossypium barbadense, 3-4% of world production), medium fiber (Gossypium hirsutum,>90% of world production) and short fiber (Gossypium Herbaceum, 2%).
Climate: Cotton is a typical crop from warm areas. Germination occurs when temperature is not below 14°C and the soil has sufficient moisture. The temperature range for Metabolic and biochemical processes is from 23.5°C to 35°C, being the optimum temperature 28°C. It is a water demanding crop, being the month before flowering, the most sensitive period to drought.
Soil: It requires deep and permeable soils for root development. It is quite tolerant to salinity.
pH: 6.5 - 7.5